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Maghreb Countries

Algeria

Fracking Frenzy Report – by Friends of the Earth Europe

Quote:
Algeria is the only Maghreb country – so far – to have altered its legal framework in order to specifically cover the exploration and exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels and to make it more attractive for multinational companies to invest. Exploration and exploitation licenses are granted following a competitive bidding process. An exploration licence is granted for up to 11 years (Article 35, Hydrocarbons Law) with the possibility of extension. Exploitation licenses are granted for 35 years (liquid hydrocarbons) or 40 years (gas), again with possible extensions.
– Link (in English) –

Hydrocarbons Law No. 13-01 Enacted 20 February 2013 (Unconventional Oil & Gas) / Loi n° 13-01 du 19 Rabie Ethani 1434 correspondant au 20 février 2013 modifiant et complétant la loi n° 05-07 du 19 Rabie El Aouel 1426 correspondant au 28 avril 2005 relative aux hydrocarbures. – At Ecolex (the gateway to environmental law)

Quote:
On February 20, 2013 Hydrocarbons Law No. 13-01 amended Petroleum Law 05-07 of April 2005, the basic petroleum law of Algeria for upstream exploration and production. Law 13-01 governs unconventional gas and oil. It also governs Coal Bed Methane (CBM). Definition of CBM and unconventional gas/oil is contained.
Link (in French)

See also:
Shale Gas, an International Guide – by Baker & McKenzie
Link (in English)

Morocco

Fracking Frenzy Report – by Friends of the Earth Europe

Quote:
While Morocco has not introduced specific legislation relating to shale, the ONHYM agency was in part set up to support the development of shale oil resources. Oil and gas developers holding exploitation concessions are exempt from corporation tax for a ten-year period, dated from the start of production.
There are three types of licence issued to developers in Morocco: reconnaissance permits (for the geological or geophysical work pre-drilling), which are granted for a maximum of 1 year; exploration permits, which are granted for up to 8 years and production permits, which can be granted for up to 25 years. The details of the terms and conditions for exploration and exploitation activities are defined by a contract (accord pétrolier) between the state and the contractor.”
– Link (in English) –

Morocco: Ten things to know about oil and gas – An overview of the legal framework by Norton Rose Fullbright

Quote:
Although Morocco currently produces oil and gas, production is limited and the country remains under-explored. Morocco enjoys political stability and operates under a constitutional monarchy and a democratically elected government. Exploratory interest is growing with an increasing number of permit awards and we are currently assisting oil & gas majors in the negotiation of petroleum interests in Morocco. ..”
– Link –

Strategic Guidelines on Oil Shales – by ONHYM (Office National des Hydrocarbures et des Mines)
Quote:
Recognizing the importance of this source of energy for the future, The ONHYM has defined a strategy for the recovery of oil shale in particular for the production of hydrocarbons and electricity. It is based on the implementation of different but complementary actions, structured in four main axis ...”
Link (in English)

Tunisia

Fracking Frenzy Report – by Friends of the Earth Europe

Quote:
Tunisia also does not have a specific legal framework for unconventional fossil fuels. Exploration and exploitation licenses for oil and gas projects are granted by the Minister in charge of Hydrocarbons. Four types of licence are issued: an initial prospecting authorisation (which allows prospecting but not seismological surveys or drilling), which can be granted for up to 1 year; a prospecting permit for further prospecting work, which can be granted for up to 2 years, exploration permits, which can be granted for up to 5 years and exploitation licences which can extend up to 30 years.
All exploration and exploitation activities for hydrocarbons must be carried out by the Tunisian State or by any company with the financial and technical capabilities (Article 7). The Hydrocarbon Law of 1999 also contains the framework for establishing production sharing agreements or joint operations.”
– Link (in English) –

 

Hydrocarbons Code under Law No. 99 – 93, 17 August 1999
ETAP (“L’Entreprise Tunisienne d’Activités Pétrolières)-Law – Law n° 72-22 of10th March 1972

The state-owned oil and gas company, ETAP (Entreprise Tunisienne d’Activités Pétrolières) is responsible for the management of oil and gas exploration and production activities on behalf of the state. ETAP can decide whether or not to participate in exploitation concessions. Exploration permits do not require a competitive bidding processes.

Quote:
Tunisian National Oil Company » (ETAP), the national oil company, was created by Law n° 72-22 of10th March 1972 in order to increase control and actively and directly participate in all hydrocarbons related operations.”
Link  (in English)
Link  (in French)

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