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Canada

Shale Gas in Canada: Environmental Risks and Regulation – Parliament of Canada, Background Paper, 26 February 2015
Authors: Penny Becklumb, Jed Chong, Tim Williams (Economics, Resources and International Affairs Division Parliamentary Information and Research Service)
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1. Introduction
The recent increase in the development of shale gas in North America has raised significant public concerns about associated environmental risks. After providing some background information about shale gas and its extraction, this paper offers an overview of some of the environmental impacts of shale gas development, and explains how Canada’s current regulatory regime, most of which is provincial, addresses these impacts. …

Link to Online Version
Link to Background Paper (PDF) –

Canada: Oil and Gas Regulation 2016 – An overview by the International Comparative Legal Guides (ICLG)
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1.1 A brief outline of your jurisdiction’s natural gas sector, including a general description of: natural gas reserves; natural gas production including the extent to which production is associated or non-associated natural gas; import and export of natural gas, including liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefaction and export facilities, and/or receiving and re-gasification facilities (“LNG facilities”); natural gas pipeline transportation and distribution/transmission network; natural gas storage; and commodity sales and trading. …
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Canada: General Structure of Petroleum Ownership and Regulation – A legal overview by Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP at Chambers and Partners
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System of Petroleum Ownership

Canada is a federal state and its Constitution grants jurisdiction over onshore natural resources to the provincial governments (known in each province as the “crown”). The Supreme Court of Canada has recognised that the federal government exercises jurisdiction over offshore natural resources located in the continental shelf. As a result, each of the provinces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador has entered into an accord with the federal government to provide for the joint management and administration of petroleum resources offshore from that province. As there has been a moratorium on west coast offshore petroleum development since 1970, no such accords have been entered into between the federal government and the province of British Columbia.

The federal government also retains ownership of petroleum rights in some federally administered onshore lands (eg the northern territories of Nunavut and Yukon), and on behalf of Canada’s Aboriginal peoples with unsettled land claims. For those few settled land claims, ownership of petroleum rights lies with the Aboriginal governments holding tenure over them. For some lands in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, ownership of petroleum rights lies with private landowners (known as “freehold” lands).

The provincial crowns, freehold owners of petroleum rights and the joint administration regime for each of the east coast offshore areas may issue leases or licenses to companies desirous of exploiting petroleum rights. Discussion in this review is limited to Canada’s major producing provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan and the offshore areas adjacent to Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia, which together account for over 95% of Canadian petroleum production.”
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Fracking Across Canada – A Fracktivist’s Toolkit
by Council of Canadians
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“In this section you will find an overview of where fracking is happening in Canada and what communities are doing to stop it. You will also find resources for more information, and contact
information for groups that are working to stop fracking. …”
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